Monday, May 25, 2020

Confrontations Between Young and Old in Shakespeares...

Confrontations Between Young and Old in King Lear One of the underlying themes in Shakespeares play, King Lear is the concept of the generation gap. This gap is mainly illustrated between the family. The older generation is Lear himself, and the younger generation consists of his daughters Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. In the second plot of the play, Gloucester represents the older generation, and his sons, Edmund and Edgar exemplifies the younger generation. Both younger generations can be divided into two distinct groups. Goneril, Regan and Edmund are the villains in both the plots and Edgar and Cordelia are the loyal, faithful children. This little twist adds to the effect of†¦show more content†¦An example of this is Oswalds attitude towards Lear after his daughter, Goneril told him to show discourtesy towards Lear. [Act 1 scene 4, Lines 75-80] O, you, sir, you! Come you hither, sir. Who am I, sir? My Ladys Father. My Ladys Father? My lords knave! You Whoreson dog! You Slave! You Cur! Another example of lost authority and power in this act is when Lears Fool offers Lear his Coxcomb (Jesters Cap) and tells him how foolish he was when he gave up his power to Goneril and Regan. Lears 100 Knights symbolize Lears power in his mind. When Lear is confronted by his daughter Goneril and is told by her that his men are too disruptive and are to be trimmed to half because she feels he does not need them. Lear is angered at Goneril for this because the Knights represents the remainder of his limited power. Regan then tells him in order to stay with her, he had to dismiss all but 25 knights because he did not have need for these men. He realizes his lost of authority and power and leaves to seek shelter in a storm. Lears knights represent power and authority in his eyes. Another example of authority and power is Kent being placed in the stocks in the middle of the court yard by Regan and Cornwall. Not onlyShow MoreRelated Shakespeares King Lear - Suffering of Cordelia in King Lear1507 Words   |  7 Pages The tragedy of Shakespeare’s King Lear is made far more tragic and painful by the presence and suffering of the kings youngest daughter, Cordelia. While our sympathy for the king is somewhat restrained by his brutal cruelty towards others, there is nothing to dampen our emotional response to Cordelias suffering. Nothing, that is, at first glance. Harley Granville-Barker justifies her irreconcilable fate thus: the tragic truth about life to the Shakespeare that wrote King Lear... includes itsRead MoreThe generation gap in King Lear by Shakespeare1624 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the underlying themes in Shakespeares play, King Lear is the concept of the generation gap. This gap is mainly illustrated between the family. The older generation is Lear himself, and the younger generation consists of his daughters Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. In the second plot of the play, Gloucester represents the older generation, and his sons, Edmund and Edgar exemplifies the younger generation. Both younger generations can be divided into two distinct groups. Goneril, Regan and EdmundRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear3086 Words   |  13 PagesJerion Young Ms. Woods English IV 4 March 2015 King Lear William Shakespeare uses several literary elements in his writing, elements which are especially apparent in his play, King Lear. Shakespeare uses excellent creativity and description when writing this tragedy. â€Å"Neither has Shakespeare placed in the mouth of any other character in this play such fatalistic expressions as may be found in King Lear and occasionally elsewhere†(A.C. 2003). The way King Lear talks in this play is very evil comparedRead MoreMacbeth9435 Words   |  38 Pageshave been written between 1603 and 1607, and is most commonly dated 1606. The earliest account of a performance of what was probably Shakespeare s play is April 1611, when  Simon Forman  recorded seeing such a play at the  Globe Theatre. It was first published in the  Folio of 1623, possibly from a  prompt book. It was most likely written during the reign of  James I, who had been James VI of Scotland before he succeeded to the English throne in 1603. James was a patron of Shake speare’s acting company,

Friday, May 15, 2020

Global Warming Is a Myth - 2326 Words

Edmund Contoski, Global Warming, Global Myth, Liberty, vol. 22, September 2008.  © Copyright 2008, Liberty Foundation. Reproduced by permission. In the last 1.6 million years there have been 63 alternations between warm and cold climates, and no indication that any of them were caused by changes in carbon dioxide levels. Edmund Contoski is a retired environmental consultant who now serves as a columnist for FORCES International Liberty News Network, an organization that advocates individual liberty unfettered by state-imposed restrictions. In the following viewpoint, Contoski asserts that global warming is scientifically unproven and that the facts reveal that the earth periodically experiences changing climates. He denies that†¦show more content†¦The overwhelming majority (97%) of carbon dioxide in the earth s atmosphere comes from nature, not from man. Volcanoes, swamps, rice paddies, fallen leaves, and even insects and bacteria produce carbon dioxide, as well as methane. According to the journalScience (Nov. 5, 1982), termites alone emit ten times more carbon dioxide than all the factories and automobiles in the world. Natural wetlands emit more greenhouse gases than all human activities combined. (If greenhouse warming is such a problem, why are we trying to save all the wetlands?) Geot hermal activity in Yellowstone National Park emits ten times the carbon dioxide of a midsized coal-burning power plant, and volcanoes emit hundreds of times more. In fact, our atmosphere s composition is primarily the result of volcanic activity. There are about 100 active volcanoes today, mostly in remote locations, and we re living in a period of relatively low volcanic activity. There have been times when volcanic activity was ten times greater than in modern times. But by far the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions is the equatorial Pacific Ocean. It produces 72% of the earth s emissions of carbon dioxide, and the rest of the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian Ocean, and the other oceans also contribute. The human contribution is overshadowed by these far larger sources of carbon dioxide. Combining the factors of water vapor and nature s production of carbon dioxide, weShow MoreRelatedGlobal Warming Is A Myth860 Words   |  4 PagesEarth. People continue to pollute the Earth with cars, trash, and waste. There are those who believe that Global Warming is a myth, while others know Global warming exists but don t care. According to U.S. EPA Global Climate Change conducted a study that the temperature increase is causing Greenhouse gases to increase around the world. All of these actions lead to one conclusion: Global Warming, the steady rise in the temperature of the earth s atmosphere, is causing problems all around the worldRead MoreEssay Global Warming is a Myth773 Words   |  4 Pagesto the Earth during global warming. Those who believe in global warming warn that it causes a significant rise in temperature in the Earths atmosphere and oceans, but after doing much research on the topic, I have discovered that the threat of global warming is a bogus one. If the Earths atmosphere was truly rising in temperature, we would see a significant rise in ice sheets melting, just like the ice cubes melted, but that is not occurring. In saying that global warming is occurring, scientistsRead MoreThe Global Warming Myth Essay772 Words   |  4 Pagescatastrophic warming trend caused by a runaway Gree nhouse Effect, the warming effect caused by certain gases (of which carbon dioxide is the most mentioned) which trap heat in the atmosphere. It’s always seemed a little fishy to me, though. The news would have us panic and hide in a storm cellar and stop breathing because we exhale carbon dioxide (CO2), but is that necessary? Is CO2 even really that bad? In this paper, I will first discuss the purported reasons behind â€Å"Anthropogenic Global Warming† (AGW)—warmingRead MoreGlobal Warming And Climate Change Myths950 Words   |  4 Pagescleared a lot of things up for me was reading and learning about Global Warming and climate change myths. One of the myths on the list that stood out to me was, â€Å"They changed the name from ‘Global Warming’ to ‘Climate Change’ † (Global Warming Climate Change Myths, 2016). According to the scientists, both terms actually mean two different things, and have both been used for decades, proving that myth to be false. Another big myth that seems to occupy the minds of a very large part of the world’sRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Myth, And At The Recent Summit1102 Words   |  5 PagesDespite scientific evidence that the Earth’s temperatures have risen by 0.8 degrees Celsius in the last century, many still believe that Global Warming is a myth, and at the recent summit in Copenhagen, world leaders could not agree on a solution. Does a solution require a united approach? Discuss. To say that a united approach to global warming is not required is just ridiculous. It is clear we are leaving a much greater carbon and greenhouse footprint on planet Earth than we should be. This essayRead MoreGlobal Warming Myth or Reality2034 Words   |  9 PagesRecently, global warming has become a big issue in the environmentally conscious society. It is often the topic of fiery debate amongst global politicians and is regularly featured in the tabloids. There are many arguments to prove the existence of global warming, but there are also many theories to disprove the existence. Confusion is caused through the ongoing debate of â€Å" Is earth going through a normal cycle?, Is earth going through Global warming ? or Is earth going through a Cold age?†. ThereRead MoreResearch Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming4031 Words   |  17 PagesResearch Paper on Climate Change: The Myth of Global Warming DEDICATION This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the developmentRead MoreResearch Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming4045 Words   |  17 PagesResearch Paper on Climate Change: The Myth of Global Warming DEDICATION This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the developmentRead MoreGlobal Warming - Truth or Myth: Two Sides to Every Story Essay2815 Words   |  12 PagesGlobal Warming–Truth or Myth: Two Sides to Every Story Summer 2010 Part I (Thesis): Global Warming: A Natural Occurrence There are always two sides to every story and every different point of view has a right to be heard. When it comes to the discussion of global warming—a gradual increase in the earth’s surface temperature—there are two very distinct and opposing points of view. The world seems to be split between global warming being caused by humans and it being a naturalRead MoreGo To This Website, Which Is Hosted By Skeptical Science.1046 Words   |  5 Pagescovers many of the myths about climate change. †¢ List two of the myths that you found most interesting. †¢Outline what each myth is, and what the right answer to that question or item is. Has your view on climate change evolved since before taking this course? Why or why not? Choose one the Review Questions from this week’s reading and answer it in full. Please tell me how the course is going for you so far? Is it hard, â€Å"just right†, or easy? 1. This link covers many of the myths about climate change

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Employee Motivation Role in Modern Management - 600 Words

Employee Motivation: Role in Modern Management Surviving the existing competition and remaining profitable and relevant in the market is a challenge faced by every enterprise. In order to achieve this, different methodologies are available for use by different companies. One such avenue, which is probably the most productive, is the motivation of employees. Motivation refers to the creation of a friendly environment and provision of conditions that challenge the workforce to be better at their job. This ensures that the productivity is maximum, and the set goals and objectives are achieved with ease. In this accord, the role of employee motivation in the modern management cannot be overemphasized. Firstly, employee motivation leads to†¦show more content†¦Motivated employees feel obligated to make use of every resource they have for the right purpose. They ensure effective use of assets in a bid to achieve their set goals as well as meeting the firm’s goals and objectives. These resources could include time or company equipment. According to Hiam (2003), motivated employees tend to spend a longer period than may be required of them, in a firm, leading to increased productivity and lower cases of absenteeism or low turnover. A motivated workforce is compelled to ensure efficiency in the business and facilitate the realization of its goals and objectives (Lipman, 2013). Finally, employee motivation avails an organization a better chance of meeting the set goals and objectives. Motivated employees look for ways to enhance their performance at the workplace and, therefore, undertake personal development measures to improve their skills (Maddock Fulton, 1998). This is ideal for any firm since it ensures improved productivity, increased innovation and efficiency at work. These qualities in turn enable the business to achieve its set goals and objectives. Human performance and productivity greatly increase when motivated in any way (Muogbo, 2013). The ability of a firm to meet its set objectives lies on its management. In a bid to realize this, the management is obligated to develop policies and procedures that allows them attract new employees, motivateShow MoreRelatedEmployee Motivation: Role in Modern Management581 Words   |  2 PagesEmployee Motivation: Role in Modern Management Motivation as a word draws its authentic meaning from the Latin word ‘movere’ meaning to move. Motivation transitions us from a dull state to being enthusiastic and interested. As a positive and implicit force, motivation shapes the path of our behavior, energizes the behavior and elicits the normality to uphold it. The definition clearly points out that an individual must be passably energized and enthused and must be willing to patiently and enduringlyRead MoreEmployee Motivation: Role in Modern Management556 Words   |  2 PagesEmployee Motivation: Role in Modern Management Modern management aims at using and manipulating mathematical models to better understand the inter-relationship between employees and the employers in all aspects (Certo Certo, 2013). The primary goal of modern management theories is to ensure the interrelationship between these factors is maximised for the benefit of the organisation. Motivation, from a general perspective, is the intrinsic drive that leads a person to take a certain course of actionRead MoreThe Importance Of Management At A Great Manager1080 Words   |  5 PagesThe Importance of Management Management is very important to any organization. There are many different types, levels, and styles of management. Organizational goals are created and achieved through management. As defined by Robbins, De Cenzo, and Coulter (2015), management is â€Å"the process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people† (p. 8). There are four functions managers perform in order to effectively and efficiently achieve goals. The four functionsRead MoreHuman Resource Management And Its Importance1517 Words   |  7 PagesEffective human resource management has become a key organizational development and success. In 1991, the United States, IBM and Tower Perrin consulting firm jointly nearly 3,000 senior human resources manager and chief executive officer (CEO) were investigated. As a result, 70% of the human resource management as organizational success the key, more than 90 percent expect to HR 2000 will be an important sector enterprises. In t he field of management, human resources management has become an importantRead MoreOutsourcing : Human Resource Activities1299 Words   |  6 PagesOutsourcing: This explains that in modern-day organizations there has been need to outsource some human resource activities to some other organizations to carry out. Citing Powell (Snell 1999) states that given pressures for management to be both efficiency and flexibility, firms are exploring the use of different employment modes to allocate tasks. (Snell 1999) further states that apart from having to use internal full-time employees, organizations today are increasingly depending on external workersRead MoreThe Challenges Of Leadership During The Modern World1412 Words   |  6 PagesBennis, W. (2007). The challenges of leadership in the modern world: introduction to the special issue. American Psychologist, 62(1), 2-5 This article covers a survey of contemporary trends in leadership. The aim of the author is to develop an understanding of the various challenges that contemporary leaders face so as to come up with effective theoretical models to resolve those challenges. Among the major challenges of leadership, Bennis notes that leadership of human institution is one. The articleRead MoreMotivation in Modern ICT Industry Essay1570 Words   |  7 PagesMotivation in modern ICT industry Motivation is the psychological background of an individual, which will build up his ego, determining whether that individual will be productive or hard-working at the place of work. In the case of the ICT industry, studies are constantly being done regarding what makes up the general employee in the industry, and which characteristics can be exploited. In this short report, a few models that have been studied, and how they work within a software-based company,Read MoreThe Inner Drive of Motivation984 Words   |  4 PagesMotivation is simply means an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. To relate Organization and Human Resource, motivation is defined as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. There are three key elements of motivation, which are intensity, direction, and persistence. Intensity is refers to how hard a person tries on something. Direction is the orientation, path or g uideline that benefits the organizationRead MoreFunctions, Roles, And Activities Of Managers881 Words   |  4 PagesExplain the functions, roles, and activities of managers. Research two companies within the last 3-years, not described in the book, and discuss what managerial characteristics were essential to lead change. Controlling, coordinating, staffing, and planning are the key functions that managers play in an organization (Lussier, 2012). Managers control and coordinate resources to achieve set goals and objectives. They are involved in both the formulation and implementation of strategies in the organizationRead MoreArgument of Hr1723 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstand the important position in the development of a enterprise. In modern times, HR has been promoted to a high degree of enterprise development strategies and plays more and more important roles in the development of enterprises. In the modern business management, HR is the core position. It is important for a wise leader to consider HR as the main part and power of the management. Because of the important role of HR, the human resources managers are demanded to have professional skills

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cloning Essay Research Paper Clones Clones Cloning free essay sample

Cloning Essay, Research Paper Ringers Ringers Cloning, the procedure of making a transcript of a works or animate being that is genetically indistinguishable to the original through nonsexual agencies, has sparked some interesting moral and ethical argument. For old ages, cloning has been used to bring forth a greater figure of a specific type of works, such as the Macintosh apple trees, which have all been derived from individual mutated works. Now, nevertheless, upon the find of a method to ringer animate beings, even worlds, people are get downing to go cognizant of the benefits and effects of cloning, every bit good as the moralss involved. Cloning has had a reasonably long history. In 1952, the first successful cloning experiment took topographic point. Scientists Robert Briggs and Thomas King successfully removed the karyon from a toad egg and replaced it with the karyon of an uniform cell from another toad. The egg, so placed in a alimentary solution, finally developed into a healthy polliwog. In 1962, ten old ages subsequently, a similar experiment took a differentiated intestinal cell and allowed the polliwog created to develop into a healthy, fertile frog. Later, in 1981, a scientist from Cambridge University so combined two embryos, one of a sheep and the other of a caprine animal, doing the first? mosaic? carnal of all time unnaturally created? the? geep, ? with the organic structure of a caprine animal covered with spots of sheep? s wool. Then 1984, the first cloned mammals were produced from embryologic karyon transplanted into unfertilised sheep eggs. Soon after, cloned calves and coneies, both from embryologic karyon, and merely late, the first mammal cloned from a to the full differentiated grownup sheep cell was created. The procedure of cloning an animate being, particularly a mammal, is non an easy one. In fact, there are multiple ways to travel about carry throughing the undertaking, depending on the beginning of the Deoxyribonucleic acid used for cloning. If a differentiated cell, one that has certain cistrons expressed or unsaid, is used, certain cistrons must foremost be forced to? turn on? in order for the cell to split and so its offspring to distinguish once more. In both instances, whether utilizing a differentiated or undifferentiated cell as the original, the karyon must be isolated and extracted from the cell and so placed into an embryologic cell from which the karyon has been removed. Then, that cell must be forced to get down to split without fertilisation. At this clip, there is no better manner to carry through the undertaking than a steady manus, a batch of enzymes, and a unnoticeably bantam pipette, yet what procedure will be developed in the hereafter is still unknown. Still, it is non the process that causes ethical argument, but alternatively the utilizations of this comparatively new biotechnology. Some believe these utilizations outweigh any kind of moral restraints, yet others are shocked and even horrified by them. And such changing types of applications for cloning frequently cause many changing sentiments every bit good. Cloning can theoretically be used for the mass production of medicines, by redacting the cistrons of cloned animate beings, coercing them to bring forth these medicines in their milk, thereby increasing the handiness and diminishing the cost of such drugs. Couples who wish to hold kids but for some ground have trouble making so can do multiple transcripts of a adult female? s egg which can so be fertilized unnaturally, through in vitro fertilisation, increasing the possibility of fertilising an egg which may come seldom from about 10 % to approximately 50 % . In another instance, a adult females who is at a high hazard of g oing unfertile through chemotherapy or the similar may be able to hold an embryo cloned for future usage. Or, since researches have developed trials for testing for familial diseases? trials which frequently kill the embryo, embryos can be cloned to extinguish the hazard of damaging such cells in the procedure. On another extreme, nevertheless, are the thoughts of organic structure farming. Cloning could theoretically be used to make a extra of a individual, taking its higher encephalon maps early in development, so that the ringer can be used to supply critical variety meats in instance the individual amendss one. In this manner, there would be no danger of rejection either, since the organic structure portion would be indistinguishable in familial make up to the damaged 1. Even more utmost are some other thoughts. Entire populations could be created through cloning, insulating specific desirable traits, thereby making the ultimate in unreal choice. In add-on, full ground forcess, genetically indistinguishable, could be created at will, and even ringers of long dead personalities of the likes of Hitler and Einstein could be created. Or how about replacing a lost household member with a ringer? Or choosing the kid you want from a catalog of embryos available to be cloned? While these though ts may look far fetched, certain events already happening lead one to believe that such things could really go on? take for illustration the male parent who had a vasectomy reversed to infuse the female parent, a 39 twelvemonth old adult female, in order to bring forth a kid for the exclusive intent of making a giver of bone marrow the ailment foremost kid. While some of these possibilities may look extreme or wholly plausible, everyone seems to hold a different sentiment. While increasing the opportunities of unreal fertilisation may look like a good thought to some, others worry about what will go on to go forth over embryos, still transporting the possibility of life, when the parents die or when the familial showing or in vitro fertilisation is complete. No 1 yet knows the reply, for a commission discoursing these concerns has yet to be formed. And while the handiness of excess variety meats may be utile in shortening the organ-donor waiting lists, some believe that making a encephalon dead category of worlds used merely to supply organic structure parts is no better than bondage or the suppression of a people. In add-on, the production of societies based on ringers frightens people afraid of losing their individualism. At the same clip, it has besides been argued that the best progresss come from a fluctuation of people and thought s? the theory that assortment causes alteration. And, the thought of replacing a household member with a ringer seems merely morally unethical to some. No affair what a individual? s position, anyone can be certain that society, faith, and upbringing drama a definite function in the determination. Positions on abortion and when life begins, for case, can hold an consequence on the importance of an embryo. And, with so many different possibilities for the usage of cloning, it is no admiration that a gradient exists between those wholly against cloning and those wholly for it. To exemplify this, a survey done of 500 grownup Americans, taken by TIME/CNN showed some interesting consequences ( see attached file ) . It is hard excessively to make up ones mind on a legal policy regulating cloning experiments because of this ground and because of the multiple authorities bureaus that could possible by involved in such a determination. In all, it is a confusing argument which seems to hold no replies, for now keeping back a mature country of scientific find. It will be interesting to see what eventually does develop of this issue. Mentions Cimons, Marlene. ? Human Embryo Research Poses Ethics Dilemma. ? Los Angeles Times. 25 Sept. 1994: A1+ . ? Clone. ? Encyclopedia Britannica Microp? Defense Intelligence Agency, 1985 erectile dysfunction. Elmer-Dewitt, Philip. ? Cloning: Where Do We Pull the Line? ? Time 8 Nov. 1993: 64-70. Lawren, Bill. ? Bionic Body Building. ? Longevity Jan. 1991: 22-27. Weiss, Rick. ? The Ethics of Cloning: Who Decides? ? Washington Post. 16 Nov. 1993: 12+ .

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

buy custom Personalized Medicine †a Window to a Better Medical Future essay

buy custom Personalized Medicine – a Window to a Better Medical Future essay The medical world has been a domain that has always strived to reach perfection but never managed to. Over the past centuries, medical experts have struggled to research and discover ways in which they could improve the medical approach of different diseases. All this time, the numerous studies have been based on studies of big cohorts, the purpose of which was to determine which medical models were best and which were better off forgotten. Recently, the medical experts believe that they have struck gold when it comes to diagnosing and treating diseases. For some time now, they have toggled with the idea of personalized medicine which is a medical model that concerns with the high customization of the healthcare process. In a famous medical magazine called Vanderbilt Medicine, Bill Snyder has conducted a prolonged research on the subject of personalized medicine and how it will affect the medical approach of the future. According to Snyder, the entire concept of personalized medicine was thought to be unreal, mainly because the fact that every patient could have a customized medical treatment was very improbable. Furthermore, Snyder has interviewed Dan Roden, the assistant vice chancellor for the entire project of personalized medicine. In the experts opinion, personalized medicine is no longer an unreachable matter, but rather something of mundane importance. (Snyer) The article also includes details on the method that personalized medicine is based on. Genetic engineering is the main technique used to create the perfect customized treatment. However, this is not everything there is to it. According to Jeff Balser, the vice chancellor for Health Affairs, personalized medicine isnt just DNA sequencing and knowing what drug to give people. (Snyder) Balser thinks that it takes more than gene sequencing to prescribe the right drugs and dosages, but also the patients personal details. Nonetheless, the entire concept of personalized medicine is centered on the study of the patients genome in order to determine the affected genes and try to treat them with the appropriate dosage of the correct drug. There are multiple medical areas where personalized medicine is proving itself to be of vital importance. Amongst these uses, the most important are definitely the study of the cancerous cells and the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. There are numerous types of tumors that have been studied with implications of personalized medicine, and one of them is prostate cancer. A team of medical experts have worked together to publish a report on the importance of personalized medicine in the surveillance of prostate cancer. According to authors Paolo Gandellini and coauthors Marco Folini and NNadia Zaffaroni, the genetic study upon the microRNAs in the tumor cells is relevant for the efficient treatment of the condition. As it turns out, managing to determine the mutations of the microRNAs and combining those with the results of the biomarkers test have considerably improved the manner in which prostate cancer is treated. (Gandellini) As for the cardiovascular diseases, the study of the genetic variation is valorous because it has managed to prove the etiology of certain conditions such as aortic dissection, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Two specialists in the cardiovascular disease field have conducted a study regarding the development of personalized medicine in patients with diseases of the heart and arteries. According to them, the heritability is a very important risk factor and it can be determined using genetic techniques. Moreover, the studies have discovered that there are rare genetic mutations in most of the patients genomes, which led to a more precise diagnosis and treatment. (ODonnell, Nabel) All in all, the prospect of personalized medicine is extremely promising. This is because by studying the genome of the human at a microscopic level, specialists can discover effective manners in which they can diagnose and treat certain diseases. This is however a method in research, as its actual potential is yet to be discovered. Buy custom Personalized Medicine – a Window to a Better Medical Future essay

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Adam Smith and Karl Marx Economic Theories Essay

Adam Smith and Karl Marx Economic Theories - Essay Example Most of the theories in economics today are based on the ideas of Smith as well as Marx and Keynes. These individuals have different ideas on how the economy works and the best economic system that would ensure the good of all people in the society. They also differ on the role the government is supposed to take to drive the economy to prosperity. All these differences are prompted by the views held by different theorists regarding human nature and this will be the subject of our discussion in the next section but emphasis on the role of human nature in economic theories of Smith and Marx. Adam Smith (1723-1790) As stated earlier, Smith is regarded as the father of modern economics and capitalism. According to him, human beings are social and as such they have a tendency to care for each other. They are also driven by self-interest but this does not deter them from empathizing with and help each other (Skousen, 11). This is the basis of his economic theory written in his book An inqu iry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations or what is commonly referred as Wealth of Nations in 1776 (Das Kapital). This brought about industrial revolution and emergence of capitalism as the dominant mode of production (Hall). The capitalist economy is based on the mechanism of free markets whereby Smith believed that individuals driven by self-interest and not infringing on the rights of others can in the process benefit the whole society (Hall). The market is driven by the ‘invisible hand’ whereby producers produce goods and services and take to market where they meet buyers who are in need of such goods for consumption. In this case, the buyer and seller only meet when exchanging products and do not negotiate on the quantity to be produced or bought (Skousen, 10). Individuals are assumed to self-regulate themselves in this economy and as such there is no need for government intervention unless to provide public goods such as infrastructure and make sure people adhere to contracts. There is thus free movement of labour, capital and goods (11). Smith’s economic theory is also based on economic independence. Natural liberty according to smith is a fundamental human right thus individuals are given freedom to do what they want (Hall). They produce what they want, at a price they want but the principle of justice must be withheld, that is, there is freedom of production and exchange. As such, all the actors in the economy (workers, landlords and capitalists) work in harmony; there is no conflict of interest (Skousen, 27). In such case, Smith assumes that human beings are honest, just according to societal rules. They can therefore, pursues self-interest without offending or ignoring the needs of others but for the benefit of all. Smith did not envision greed and egotism in human nature. Furthermore, capitalists have to consider the interests of consumers if they want to make profit. Human beings are competitive in nature. This a ccording to Smith was not a negative thing but affected the economy positively, that is, is led to economic growth (Hall). Man should therefore â€Å"bring his industriousness and capital into competition with those of others to create harmony† (Skousen, 27). Competition leads to determination of prices in the market thus the market is always in the equilibrium. The producer is able to get profit for his produce and the consumer benefits from low prices as well as improved quality (to lower prices, manufacturers improve technology thus produce quality goods at low cost). As such economic prosperity is achieved through economic independence. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Smith and Marx had very different views regarding human nature and as such